If you are new to the web or just new to SEO here is a great list of tools that will help you get started. Most of these tools are free and simple to use.
Opensiteexplorer.com – Free
A great tool from Moz.com that allows you to see pages and domains that link to your site or your competitors. It will also give you a sense of the authority of those links as well as the types of words those sites are using to link to you or your competitors.
Semrush – Free with a paid upgrade.
Type in a website URL and it will give you a list of it’s search engine rankings that on on the first two pages. It will also give you a report of the keywords your competitors are using for adwords. Another cool feature is that if you type in a keyword it will give you monthly search volume stats and related keywords that people are searching. Free with a paid upgrade.
Google Adwords Keyword Tool - Free
Great tool for finding relevant keywords that people are searching as well as monthly search volumes and relative competition for those keywords. This tool is free but you have to create an adwords account.
Google Analytics - Free
Free website monitoring and reporting tool. Simply add the tracking code to your site and you are off and running. Google analytics always you to see the traffic to your site as well as where the traffic is coming from what pages are being visited and what actions they are making while on your site.
Google Webmaster Tools - Free
Another free tool from Google. Webmaster tools always you to see your search term rankings, impressions, clicks as well as what pages have been indexed. It is also allows you to submit a sitemap so Google can best index your site.
Copyscape.com – Free with paid upgrade
Having a webpage with duplicate content with another page will drop the rankings of your site in a hurry. Copyscape is a quick and simple way to find if a webpage or a piece of content is unique.
Majesticseo.com – Free with paid upgrade
Another great tool for getting an idea of the sites linking to you or your competitor. From what I have found it has the best historical data and a great way to look at your link profile.
ahrefs.com – Free with paid upgrade
Great tool for getting an overall feel of number and types of links coming to your site or to compare to your competitors. It also will tell you the social shares you site has had. They have a paid version that will give you more in-depth reporting.
Semalt.com – Free with paid upgrade
Rank tracking tool. One of the most time consuming parts of SEO can be keeping track of where you rank in the search engines for a specific keyword. Rank-tracking tools allow you to enter multiple keywords that you would like to keep track of and what your ranking is. Semalt will also give you suggestions for keywords you might want to use and keep an eye on.